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Functional Programming Glossary

beginner

Note: This section keeps on growing! Keep an eye on it from time to time.

This document is meant to be an introduction to Functional Programming for people from all backgrounds. We’ll go through some of the key concepts and then dive into their implementation and use in real world cases.

A datatype is a class that encapsulates one reusable coding pattern. These solutions have a canonical implementation that is generalised for all possible uses.

Some common patterns expressed as datatypes are absence handling with Option , branching in code with Either , catching exceptions with , or interacting with the platform the program runs in using .

You can read more about all the datatypes that Arrow provides in its section of the docs .

Typeclasses define a set of functions associated to one type. This behavior is checked by a test suite called the “laws” for that typeclass.

You can use typeclasses as a DSL to add new free functionality to an existing type or treat them as an abstraction placeholder for any one type that can implement the typeclass.

Examples of these behaviors are: comparability (), composability ( Monoid ), its contents can be mapped from one type to another ( Carvela Women’s Kacie Espadrilles Black Black oNouv5L
), or error recovery ( IGI Co 1176 Wedge Sandals Women Blue 41 ijlgb
).

You can read more about all the typeclasses that Arrow provides in its section of the docs .

One example, the typeclass Eq parametrized to F defines equality between two objects of type F :

A single implementation of a typeclass for a specific datatype or class. Because typeclasses require generic parameters each implementation is meant to be unique for that parameter.

All typeclass instances provided Arrow can be found in the companion object of the type they’re defined for, including platform types like String or Int.

If you’re defining your own instances and would like for them to be discoverable in their corresponding datatypes’ companion object, you can generate it by annotating them as @instance , and Arrow’s annotation processor will create the extension functions for you.

NOTE: If you’d like to use @instance for transitive typeclasses, like a Show<List<A>> that requires a function returning a Show<A> , you’ll need for the function providing the transitive typeclass to have 0 parameters, and for any new typeclass defined outside Arrow to be on a package named typeclass . This will make the transitive typeclass a parameter of the extension function. This is a temporary limitation of the processor to be fixed because we don’t have an annotation or type marker for what’s a typeclass and what’s not.

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Andy_Wilson
Feb 10

Hi Folks, Simple one hopefully

The code below is checking if my count variable as reached 1, then its loading the powerup. Simples. The question is, how do i make it only do it once and not “per frame”!

The problem i have is, it takes the player a while to ensure fullSpawnCount is no longer 1, therefore I am instantiating little health powerups every frame until that point.

if (fullSpawnCount == 1) { GameObject powerUp = Instantiate (addHealth, transform.position, Quaternion.identity) as GameObject; }

created

Feb 10
Feb 11
JungleFett
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You can make a bool variable to control that, have it true by default and do something like this:

if (fullSpawnCount == 1 yourBoolControllerHere) { GameObject powerUp = Instantiate (addHealth, transform.position, Quaternion.identity) as GameObject; yourBoolControllerHere = false; } else yourBoolControllerHere = true;

Andy_Wilson
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Hi @JungleFett , thanks for the reply. I have been trying to do this before but have been getting errors, my syntax must have been out. Anyway, added the code below, and i still get multiple instances of the power up! Weird.

powerup.jpg 921x601 28.6 KB

in this screen shot, I have just killed the last enemy, the powerup has just been generated. New enemy coming into game.

Andy_Wilson
Feb 10
Andy_Wilson:

if (fullSpawnCount == 1 myPowerUp == true) { GameObject powerUp = Instantiate (addHealth, transform.position, Quaternion.identity) as GameObject; myPowerUp = false; }

OK problem solved. Taking out the "else myPowerUp = true; ensures only one power up is instantiated! *** @Duckfest_JF Rightly pointed out that the code above should really display the correct , working method, and not include the now defunct line. So to be clear, this comment contains the working version ***

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